Saturday, 14 April 2012

Modul Praktikum IPA SMP


MODULE
INTEGRATED SCIENCE GUIDE PRACTICUM
FOR VII JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
1St Semester


This module is structured to meet one of the tasks subject
Management & Technique Science Laboratory
Lecturer:
............


Arranged by:
Mr. L (...........................)


INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE
YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY
2011





INTRODUCTION

            Praise and thanksgiving constituent prayed to the presence of Allah SWT upon the completion of the task of making module INTEGRATED SCIENCE Practical Guide for Junior High School.
Instructions integrated science lab is intended for students of class VII contains a guide in conducting lab activities. expectations with the module guide this lab students have no difficulty in carrying out practical activities Integrated Science.
The author realizes that there are still many shortcomings in the preparation of this Practical Guide Module. Therefore major constituent of hope to readers to provide suggestions and constructive criticism.

Yogyakarta, 13 December 2011

Editor
 ..............
Mr. L





PRACTICAL PROSEDURES
General Regulations in the Laboratory :
  1.  Do not enter the lab without teacher permission.
  2. Do not  eat or drink in the laboratory.
  3. Do not run around in the lab.
  4. Do not do any experiment without teacher permission.
  5. Let the lab doors and windows open, unless there is another command from the teacher.
  6. Do not damage equipment or other device elektrinik in the laboratory.
  7. Read all instructions carefully.
  8. Do not breathe too deeply any gas.
  9. Do not feel any chemicals unless there is permission from the teacher.
  10. Use equipment properly and carefully
  11. Wash equipment that has been used. Do not dispose of materials - solid material into the sink. Return the equipment into place.
  12. Wash hands after the experiment is completed
  13. Better to use laboratory clothing when working in the lab.

Special Regulations in Experimenting :

1.      Always use safety goggles before starting the heating or mixing chemicals.
2.      Do not expose the test tube mouth toward you or others when heating chemicals.
3.      Do not breathe gas or chemicals directly, unless there is a command from the teacher.
4.      Do not place flammable chemicals near the fire and do not heat it directly.
5.      Read the description on the packaging of existing chemicals.
6.      If the agency you are exposed to a chemical, immediately wash with running water, and then report to the teacher.
7.      Do not return the chemicals that have been worn into the container or bottle because it will contaminate.

Below is a table icons that need attention in the laboratory.

Icon
Information
 

 Hazardous materials because they contain elements of the radiation thus requiring anti-radiation equipment to use it.




Toxic materials, should not be eaten. If ingested drink plenty of water or induce vomiting if possible. Immediately taken to the doctor for further treatment.





Substances hazardous to the environment. Flushing shall be in accordance with the standards of environmentally friendly is by neutralizing pH and dilute.







Combustible materials. Keep away from fire and excessive heat.






Material is corrosive, causing a wound if the skin and damage clothing. Use special gloves when using it.





Biohazard. Marked material is very dangerous because it is a microorganism that can cause illness if exposed to the air. Use the international standard clothes when using this material and place in a special cabinet.


 



ACTIVITY 1
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

Subject : Determine the characteristics of living things based on the observation.

Basic Theory
            All of living things have common characteristics that can distinguish it from inanimate matter. Characteristics of living is to breathe, move, need food, grow and breed, are sensitive to stimuli, and remove the waste, while inanimate objects do not have this characteristic. Examples are human beings, animals and plants.
Breathing or respiration is the process of taking oxygen from outside the body to process food burning in the body. The process of burning food will produce energy or power. Migratory movement can be observed as in the motion of humans and animals. Plants move when grown, for example, the motion to open it when blooming petals.
On the addition of body size growth of living things. Meaning of the originally small body size becomes larger. This can occur due to the addition of cell number and size of the cells that build the body of living beings. All living things are also proliferating. Breeding or reproduction of living beings is the ability to produce offspring. The goal is for the living berreproduksi mempertahankankelangsungan kind of life. While the ability of living things to respond to a stimulus is called iritabilita.

Tools and Materials :
1.      Living things
2.      Stationary 

Procedures :
1.      Provide a living being, among others: a fungus that grows on bread, seeds are germinated, the leaves on the trees are still alive, flowering plants, earthworms, grubs, fish, frogs, yourself.
2.      Observe that living thing. Write down the characteristics of living things can you observe. Do not write down characteristics of living things can not you observe.

 Question :
Can you find out how to know the characteristics of living on a living being can you observe? Explain!



ACTIVITY 2
CLASIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS

Subject : Classify insects based on the form outside the body as a basis for classification.

Basic Theory
            Classification of living things is a way of sorting and classifying living things into several groups specified atauunit. The purpose of classification of living things is to make it easier to identify, compare and study of living things.
Classification of living things based on similarities and differences in characteristics in living things, such as body shape or function of the tool body. Various methods are used to classify living things.
Based on his size, plants are grouped into trees, shrubs and bushes. Depending on the environment of his life, plants are grouped into plants living in dry lngkungan (xerofit), the aquatic environment (hidrofit), and humid environment (higrofit).
Based on its benefits, plants are grouped into herbs - medicines, clothing plants, ornamental plants, food crops and so on. Based on the type of food, animals are grouped into flesh-eating animals (carnivores), plant eaters (herbivores) and animal-eating plants and animals (omnivore).

Tools and Materials :
  1. Petri dish
  2. Tweezers
  3. Chloroform
  4. Magnifying glass
  5. Clear jar lid
  6. Grasshoppers, beetles, butterflies, dragonflies, already, ants, flies, spiders, millipedes, and the bees


Procedures :
1.      Stunning of animals that would be observed with cotton soaked in chloroform. The trick is to put animals into the jar, put cotton that has been moistened with chloroform, and then close the jar. Allow the animal to die.
2.      Put the animals to be observed in the petri dish. Use tweezers to hold the animal and use tweezers to hold the animal and use the magnifying glass for observation so that all parts of the animal's body is easily seen.
3.      By using a magnifying glass, observe the body (a head, thorax, and abdomen, or head and thorax united), the number of feet (6 pieces, 8 pieces or more than 8 pieces) and wings (present or absent)
4.      Record observations in a table

Observation Table
Animals
Part of Body
Sum of Feet
wings
grasshopper
Head
6 Feet
yes
Chest


Stomach



Question :
1.      How characteristic of animals that you observed?
2.      Of all the animals were observed. Does anyone have the same characteristics? Classify animals that have the same characteristics!


ACTIVITY 3
INTRODUCTION TO MEASURING TOOLS

Subject : Perform basic measurements accurately using an appropriate measuring instrument and
is often used in everyday life.

Tools and Materials:
  • Ruler
  • Sliding-term
  • Micrometer screw
  • Scale of Ohaus
  • Kitchen Scales
  • Watches / Clocks
  • Stopwatch
  • Thermometer

Procedures :
1.      Prepare the gauge length, mass, time, and temperature on the lab table!
2.      Identification of these tools and identify the characteristics and usefulness of these tools!
3.      The results are entered in the table below!

Name of tool
Characteristics
Function
….
….
….
….
….
....
….
….
….

Question
1.      From the names of measuring devices above, where is the tool used to
measure the scale length?
2.      From the names of measuring devices above, where is the tool used to
measuring the amount of time?
3.      From the names of measuring devices above, where is the tool used to
measure the mass scale?
4.      From the names of measuring devices above, where is the tool used to
measure the temperature scale?
5.      From the answers no. 1, where the length gauge most closely?
6.      From the answers no. 2, where the length gauge most closely?
7.      From the answers no. 3, where the length gauge most closely?


ACTIVITY 4
RECTILINEAR


Subject :          1. Observing Rectilinear Regular.
2. Observe the motion of uniformly accelerated straight.
3. Observed uniformly accelerated motion is slowed

Basic Theory
            Objects can be moved through a straight path or trajectory that is not straight. Motion through a straight path is called a straight motion. Examples of straight motion is a car that was speeding on the road, flat and straight. Examples of moving objects is not straight movement windblown foliage.
Motion at a pace that is not still called irregular motion. Motion at a pace that always remains is called irregular motion. Objects that perform irregular motion and trajectory of the straight line is said to do it straight uniform motion
If the object to Rectilinear Regular, for the same interval of time which he passes is the same distance. For example for 1 s first traveled a distance of 5 m, for 1 s two also traveled a distance of 5 m and so on. Irregular motion is not so straight. For the same time interval is not the same distance. For example for 1 s first traveled a distance of 5 m, for 1 s both traveled a distance of 7 m, for 1 s three traveled a distance of 10 m and so on.

Tools & Materials :
1.      timer type
2.      A toy car
3.      Boards along the 1 m
4.      A block of wood as thick as 10 cm.

Work Procedures :

Subject 1 / Rectilinear Regular :
1.      Connect the toy car with the ribbon type timer.
2.      Turn on the timer type. Simultaneously, pull the toy car to move at a pace of fixed.
3.       Note the sign - a black mark made ​​by the timer type on the tape. Measure the distance between two successive marks. Was the same result?
4.      Cut the ribbon so that each part contains five pins. Align the pieces - pieces of ribbon. Was the same high?
5.      What can you conclude from this activity?

Subject 2 / Accelerated Rectilinear Regular:
1.      Prop one end of the board with wooden blocks so that the board be tilted.
2.      Connect the toy car with the ribbon type timer, then place in the higher part.
3.      Same time as turning timer type, remove the toy car to move down.
4.      Note the sign - a black mark made ​​by the timer type on the tape. Measure distance between two successive marks. Was the same result?
5.      Cut ribbon to each part contains five marks. Align the pieces - pieces of ribbon. Was the same height?

Subject 3 / Rectilinear Slowed Regular:
1.      Prop one end of the board with wooden blocks so that the board be tilted.
2.      Connect the toy car with the ribbon type timer, then place in the lower part.
3.      Move the toy car with a single push up the board so the car.
4.      When the car is running record using the timer type. Long - eventually the car will stop.
5.      If the car has stopped, do not stand up to move down the board.
6.      Perform steps - steps such as steps 4 and 5 on the uniform accelerated motion straight.





ACTIVITY 5
Pressure in Liquids

Subject : Describe Pascal through simple experiments and their application in everyday life.

Basic Theory
Pascal's law states that when there is an increase in pressure at any point in a confined fluid, there is an equal increase at every other point in the container. A container, as shown below, contains a fluid. There is an increase in pressure as the length of the column of liquid increases, due to the increased mass of the fluid above.

Tools & Materials
- Injection / SPET former
- Rubber balls
- needle
- bucket
- water

Work Procedures
1. Fill with water injection
2. Fill a rubber ball filled with water until
3. Connect the injection with a rubber ball, try the connection is not there a leak
4. Punch a hole through a rubber ball with a needle in several places
5. Press the injection of water gushing up to
6. Observe jets of water that occurs

Question
1.      How to jets of water on every hole at the time of injection is pressed? Give an explanation!
2.      What can you infer from this activity?

Work Project
1.         Conduct an interview to a car wash service station personnel who have
hydraulic facilities. Before the interview prepare a list of questions.
2.         Create a report on the interview.




ACTIVITY 6
ECOSYSTEM COMPONENTS, ROLES & INTERACTION


Subject : Understanding the understanding of individuals, populations & communities within an ecosystem and to know the role of living things observed in the ecosystem.

Basic Theory
            Interrelationships between living things with abiotiknya components in a single unit called a living ecosystem. Ecosystems are composed of units of living things that individuals, populations and communities. In the ecosystem are biotic components and abiotic components.
Biotic components of the ecosystem consists of all living beings are in an ecosystem. Eg: animals, plants, and microorganisms. Based on its role in the ecosystem biotic components are grouped into three, namely the manufacturer (producer), consumers (users) and decomposer (decomposers).
Abiotic components of the ecosystem consists of all inanimate objects that surround living creatures. For example water, amenity, air, sunlight, temperature and humidity.
Individuals are living tunggal.sebagai example, a goat, a bird, a mouse, and a tree. The population is a collection of similar individuals who occupy a particular area. For example, a set of tigers in the grasslands, and some mujaer fish in the pond. Community is the entire population of living creatures that live in certain areas.

Tools & Materials:
1.      Raffia rope or other rope
2.      Estimator
3.      Stationery
4.      Living things contained in the observation

Work Procedures :
1.      Measure a piece of land covering an area of ​​1 m square in place that will be observed. Attach boundaries of land parcels that will be observed by using a rope that formed a square measuring 1 mx 1 m, or other broader measures.
2.      Observe all objects and living things contained in the limit of raffia rope.
3.      Record the results in Table pengamtan observations.

Observation Table

Types of living things
Role in the ecosystem





Question :
1.      How many populations that make up the community in which you observe?
2.      Is there any interaction (behind timbl relationship) between living things in the field of observation?
3.      Are there any abiotic components in the observed field?
4.      Can anyone acting as a producer in the field of observation?
5.      Can you observe a piece of land which is called the ecosystem? Explain why!




 ACTIVITY 7
Separation of Mixed With Sublimation
Subject : to determine the separation process mixtures on solids

Tools & Materials
1.      colored camphor
2.      petri dish
3.      50 ml beaker
4.      methylated spirit stove (Bunsen) and three feet (tripot)
5.      water /ice

Work Procedures
1.      Insert colored camphor-na into the beaker
2.      Close the beaker with a petri dish
3.      Put ice on top of a petri dish
4.      Turn cooker methylated spirit and will not le-beaker on the stove over low heat
5.      Observe and cata events of what happened

Discussion
1.      Determine the safety first before doing these activities
2.      Write down the facts - facts that you observed from the above events and give an explanation.
3.      What functions are placed on ice petri dish?
4.      Whether the events that occurred on the activities that you do?




ACTIVITY 8
POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE

Subject : to know air pollution caused by dust

Basic Theory
            Environmental pollution is the inclusion of events substances - substances or other harmful components into the environment. Environmental pollution may occur due to human activities or naturally. Something that causes puolusi (pollution) are called pollutants. Pollutants may include chemicals, dust, living things or living beings produced, heat, noise or radiation.
Based on the nature of contaminants (pollutants), environmental pollution can be divided into three groups: chemical pollution, physical and biological. Pollution is pollution caused by chemical substances - chemicals. Physics pollution is pollution caused by liquid, solid, or gaseous. Biological pollution is pollution that disebabkanoleh wide range of microorganisms that cause disease.
Based on the pollution of the environment affected by environmental pollution can be divided into three namely water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution.

Tools & Materials :
1. Scotch tape
2. scissors

Work Procedures :
1.      Go to the edge of the road at the school. Look for dusty.
2.      Scissors tape each eight inches long. Paste in the place chosen. For example in the fence, utility pole, wall fence or wall street. Glue the tape in place.
3.      Unplug the tape again carefully.
4.      Fill in the observation obtained in the observation table.


Observation Table

No
Name of Place
State of the tape (dust content)
1

++
2


3


4



  Info :
+          = a little dust
++        = must dust
+++     = very much dust

Question :
1.      The place where the most dust?
2.      Which places have not been so polluted?
3.      According to your opinion, how to reduce air pollution caused by dust in the area that you observe?










ACTIVITY 9
DIVERSITY IN LIVING SYSTEMS ORGANIZATION


Subject :          1. Knowing the parts - parts of animal cells and plant cells
2. Knowing the differences in animal cells and plant cells

Basic Theory
            Living body made ​​up of cells. Single cell creatures called unicellular living beings. Multicellular living things are called multicellular living things. In general, the cell consists of cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus of the cell (nucleus). In the cytoplasm there are organelles - cell organelles. Contained in the cell nucleus cell nucleus nukleoplasma and children.
An outer cell membrane of cells that protect the cell contents. The cell membrane serves to regulate the entry of substances out of the dank e in the cell. Cell membranes are semipermeable. This means that can be traversed by water and substances - certain substances are dissolved. Cell membranes in plants diselaputi cell wall, whereas in animal cells do not.
The cytoplasm is a viscous liquid (plasma) that sits between the cell membrane and the cell nucleus. In the cytoplasm there are vacuoles (cell cavities) and organelle - cell organelles. Plant cells have cell vacuole larger than animal cell vacuole. In multicellular animals, vacuoles are rarely found. Cell organelles in the cytoplasm antaralain motikondria, Golgi bodies, ribosomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Inside the cell nucleus are chromosomes that contain genes. genes play a role as a nature which can be derived.

Observing Animal Cells

Tools & Materials :
1.      spoon a small
2.      glass objects
3.      glass cover
4.      pipette
5.      microscope
6.      methylene blue

Work Procedures :
1.      Scrape the inner cheek wall of the heart - the heart using a small spoon.
2.      Apply the material on a small spoon in the middle of the glass surface of the object.
3.      Add 2 drops of methylene blue on the smear. This serves to methylene blue dye preparations to be more easily observed.
4.      Cover the glass object with glass cover in the liver - the liver. Try to avoid any air bubbles in the preparations.
5.      Observe under a microscope preparations, ranging from weak perbesarkan then increased to a strong magnification.
6.      Picture your observations.

Observing Plants Cells


Tools & Materials :


1.      Scissors
2.      Tweezers
3.      glass objects
4.      glass cover
5.      pipette
6.      razor blade
7.      microscope
8.      shallots
9.      solution of iodine

Work Procedures :
1.      Irislah onion longitudinally.
2.      Take a layer of onion slices.
3.      Pull the thin layer of the onion surface by using tweezers.
4.      Using scissors, cut the size of the layer was approximately 5 x 5 cm.
5.      Put a piece of glass was on top of things and add 2 drops of iodine solution.
6.      Cover the preparation with a glass cover. Try not served until no air bubbles in the preparations.
7.      Observe under a microscope.
8.      Draw your observations.

Observation Table

Part of Cells
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
Cell Wall


Cell Membrane


Nucleus
+
+
Chloroplas


Vacuola


Golgi


Reticulum endoplasma


Mitocondria


nucleolus



Info :
+ = yes      - = no

Question :
1.      Parts of cells or cell organelles which are found in animal cells?
2.      Parts of cells or cell organelles which are found in animal cells? Plant?
3.      Why plants can perform photosynthesis?
4.      Why do plant cells have a fixed shape?








_____________________________________

Anni Winarsih, BSE IPA Terpadu untuk SMP kelas VII. Departemen Pendidikan Nasional,
Jakarta, 2008.
Djoko Arisworo, Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam untuk SMP Kelas VIII. Grafindo Media Pratama,
Bandung, 2007.
Michael Purba, IPA Kimia untuk SMP Kelas VII. Erlangga, Jakarta, 2007.
Modul SMP Terbuka, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, Jakarta, 2008.
Rinie Pratiwi, BSE Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam SMP kelas VII. Departemen Pendidikan Nasional,
Jakarta,2008.
Saipul Karim, BSE Belajar IPA untuk kelas VIII SMP. Departemen Pendidikan Nasional,
Jakarta, 2008.
Tim IPA, IPA Terpadu 2. Yudistira, Jakarta, 2008.
Tim Abdi Guru, IPA Terpadu SMP Kelas VIII. Erlangga, Jakarta, 2008.



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